Unpacking the GII2023 Science and Technology Cluster Raking

November 23, 2023

By Kyle Bergquist and Jeff Slee (WIPO)

Most major-ranked clusters these types of as Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and San Jose-San Francisco specialize in data technological innovation Basel and Singapore have the highest share of international collaboration.

Video clip: GII2023 Science and Technological innovation Cluster Ranking.

The Worldwide Innovation Index (GII) 2023 ranks the world’s prime 100 science and technologies (S&T) clusters, emphasizing their essential contribution to nationwide innovation devices.

This year’s GII identifies Tokyo–Yokohama in Japan as the top S&T cluster globally, adopted by Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou (China and Hong Kong, China), Seoul (Republic of Korea), followed by China’s Beijing and Shanghai-Suzhou.

In phrases of quantity of clusters, China prospects with 24 clusters, followed by United States (21), Germany (9), and Japan (4).

Apart from China, 5 other middle-earnings economies have clusters in the prime 100:

  • India (4 clusters): Bengaluru, Delhi, Chennai and Mumbai
  • Türkiye (2): Istanbul and Ankara
  • Brazil (1): São Paulo
  • Islamic Republic of Iran (1): Tehran
  • Russian Federation (1): Moscow

Computer system technologies & digital communications are top patented technologies among the prime 100 S&T clusters

On the lookout at only the PCT purposes inside of the top rated 100 S&T clusters, the adhering to 10 patent technology fields account for 60% of all technology fields: Pc technological innovation (11.6%), Digital interaction (11.4%), Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy (6.5%), Clinical engineering (6.5%), Audio‑visual know-how (4.7%), Measurement (4.6%), Prescribed drugs (4.3%), Semiconductors (3.6%), Transportation (3.4%), and Biotechnology (3.3%). The tool below can be utilised to examine the technologies fields of unique clusters even more.

Using a group of picked clusters, we can review and understand additional about the technology concentrations. To give illustrations: The Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou cluster has a significant focus in Electronic communication (26.1%), the San Jose-San Francisco cluster is really concentrated in Computer systems (22.3%), though the Munich cluster has a greater focus in Transport systems (12.9%).

Collaboration with international innovation actors is higher among the prime 100 S&T clusters

Collaboration in research and enhancement (R&D) is necessary for tapping into assorted knowledge, driving innovation, sharing assets, mitigating risks, and accelerating progress. It broadens networks, delivers quality regulate, and presents entry to specialized services. In essence, R&D collaboration is a crucial catalyst for efficiency and innovation.

Making use of the prime 100 S&T cluster dataset we can get an idea of the level of international collaboration common in these clusters. In desk 1, overseas collaboration is measured centered on the selection of one of a kind patent purposes (or publications) from in a cluster that has at the very least one particular other inventor (or creator) stated exterior that cluster’s financial system. We even further examine these relationships for the best clusters with the best share of overseas collaboration, proven below.

Notice: The overall represents the quantity of patents or scientific content with at the very least a person inventor or creator situated in the presented cluster. Overseas signifies the selection of patents or scientific posts with at the very least one particular inventor or creator related with the cluster and one particular co-inventor/co-author located in an overall economy that is unique than the economy of the cluster. Collaboration in publications tend to be better than patent purposes, see background for even further specifics.

The Basel cluster, rating 97 in the top 100, has the best share of foreign collaboration inside both PCT applications and publications. There are 3,924 PCT purposes posted involving 2018 and 2022 with at least 1 inventor positioned in the Basel cluster, of which, 1,390 also had a co-inventor whose deal with was shown outside the house of Switzerland (a overseas collaboration share of 35.4%). For publications, the share of overseas collaboration with the Basel cluster is even increased at 69% of all the scientific articles or blog posts released in between 2017 and 2021.

The Singapore cluster has the next highest share of publications with foreign collaboration, acquiring over 46K scientific posts printed with at minimum just one global co-creator. Singapore also has the 4th maximum share of foreign collaboration in its PCT purposes among the the top 100 clusters.

The instrument beneath can be made use of to additional discover the international collaboration of clusters and additional particularly how they link with external economies, for equally patents and publications (see Determine 5 in the Qualifications area for more information).


The WIPO major 100 Science and Technological know-how (S&T) Cluster rating, identifies neighborhood concentrations of entire world-primary science and technologies action. S&T clusters are established by way of the examination of patent-submitting action and scientific short article publication, documenting the geographical locations around the earth with the highest density of inventors and scientific authors. Further cluster details can also be discovered in our new cluster briefs found on our S&T Cluster rating web page.


For this investigation, two foreign collaboration measures are utilised. The very first is utilised in table 1, concentrating on the presence of foreign collaboration on a patent or posting. If at the very least one particular of the co-inventors (or co-authors) is found outside the offered cluster’s economy, then that PCT software (or publication) is counted as a overseas collaboration.

The 2nd technique, employed in determine 5, goes a person phase additional by establishing the specific economies exactly where the co-inventors and co-authors are positioned and aggregating those collaborative hyperlinks by those people economies. A collaborative link is measured by initial identifying the patents and publications within just just about every cluster that have at least a person inventor or writer outside the house that distinct cluster, and then counting the amount of exceptional collaborative one-way links by site. Domestic collaboration takes place when an inventor or researcher collaborates exterior their very own cluster, but regionally inside of the identical overall economy, even though foreign collaboration happens outside the house the neighborhood economic climate.

For example: A journal publication has 6 authors detailed: 1 dwelling in the Paris cluster, 2 in France but not in the Paris cluster, 1 in the US and 2 living in the United kingdom. The Paris cluster would then have 1 domestic hyperlink with France and 2 foreign back links: 1 with the United kingdom and 1 with the US.

Figure 5: Measuring collaborative inbound links

The level of collaboration amid the science and technological know-how similar journal publications and patents can fluctuate significantly. Scientific research is typically a collective endeavor, involving collaboration among researchers, establishments, and even nations to advance knowledge and share discoveries. In contrast, patent purposes are typically pushed by commercial passions, the place inventors or organizations search for to safeguard their intellectual assets for economic achieve.